Observing time estimates must take into account:

- receiver tunings,
- pointing, focus, continuum and
line calibrations (be aware that receiver alignment corrections, if needed,
will eventually be counted against your observing time),
- telescope motions when changing sources as well as dead times
due to telescope motion and/or data writing between ON and
OFF subscans,
- integration time on source and comparison field(s).

The total integration time should be derived using the standard formula:

where
and are the telescope forward and main
beam efficiencies,
is the system temperature above the atmosphere (in the antenna
temperature scale), **B** the
channel noise bandwidth, and **t** the total (ON + OFF) integration time.
should be estimated for an `average' summer humidity for
3mm, 2mm and 1.3mm observations (7 mm of precipitable water, or
at 230 GHz).

* We ask you to specify in your proposal the parameter values ( total integration time, overheads and dead times) adopted
in your calculation of the needed telescope time.*

A technical report explaining how to estimate the telescope time
needed to reach a given sensitivity level in various modes of
observation was published in the January 1995 issue of the IRAM
Newsletter [9]
.
* You are asked to follow the
guidelines given in this report (or to justify particular requirements) in
your proposal*.

lucas@iram.fr