Observing time estimates must take into account:

- receiver tunings (for heterodyne observations),
- pointing, focus, continuum and line calibrations (be aware that receiver alignment corrections, if needed, will eventually be counted against your observing time),
- telescope motions when changing sources as well as dead times due to telescope motion and/or data writing between ON and OFF subscans,
- integration time on source and comparison field(s).

The total integration time should be derived using the standard formula:

where
and are the telescope forward and main
beam efficiencies,
is the system temperature above the atmosphere (in the antenna
temperature scale), *B* the
channel noise bandwidth, and *t* the total (ON + OFF) integration time.
should be estimated for an `average' summer humidity for
3mm, 2mm and 1.3mm observations (7 mm of precipitable water, or
at 230 GHz).

*We ask you to specify in your proposal the parameter values ( total integration time, overheads and dead times) adopted
in your calculation of the needed telescope time.*

A technical report explaining how to estimate the telescope time
needed to reach a given sensitivity level in various modes of
observation was published in the
January 1995 issue of the IRAM Newsletter [9]
.
It has been included in the
30-m Telescope Manual [10].
*You are asked to follow the
guidelines given in this report (or to justify particular requirements) in
your proposal*.

lucas@iram.fr