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Observing time estimates must take into account:
where and are the telescope forward and main beam efficiencies, is the system temperature above the atmosphere (in the antenna temperature scale), B the channel bandwidth, and t the total (ON + OFF) integration time. should be estimated for an `average' summer humidity for 3mm, 2mm and 1.3mm observations (7 mm of precipitable water, or at 230 GHz).
A technical report explaining how to estimate the telescope time needed to reach a given sensitivity level in various modes of observation is published in this Newsletter (Guelin, Kramer & Wild). You are asked to follow the guidelines given in this report (or to justify particular requirements) in your proposal.