Observing time estimates must take into account:

- receiver tunings,
- pointing, focus, eventually necessary receiver alignment, continuum and
line calibrations,
- telescope motions when changing sources as well as dead times
due to telescope motion and/or data writing between ON and
OFF subscans,
- integration time on source and comparison field(s).
The total integration time should be derived using the standard formula:
where and are the telescope forward and main beam efficiencies, is the system temperature above the atmosphere (in the antenna temperature scale), B the channel bandwidth, and

**t**the total (ON + OFF) integration time. should be estimated for an `average' summer humidity for 3mm, 2mm and 1.3mm observations (7 mm of precipitable water, or at 230 GHz).

A technical report explaining how to estimate the telescope time needed to
reach a given sensitivity level in various modes of observation is published
in this Newsletter (Guelin, Kramer & Wild). * You are asked to follow the
guidelines given in this report* (or to justify particular requirements) in
your proposal.

Thu Mar 9 12:14:01 MET 1995